It is very easy to cherry pick data and create a bogus piece of research. Travis points to a paper designed to cherry-pick coming to a ridiculous conclusion that manages to get published
Cigarette smoking: an underused tool in high-performance endurance training
The review paper is a staple of medical literature and, when well executed by an expert in the field, can provide a summary of literature that generates useful recommendations and new conceptualizations of a topic. However, if research results are selectively chosen, a review has the potential to create a convincing argument for a faulty hypothesis. Improper correlation or extrapolation of data can result in dangerously flawed conclusions. The following paper seeks to illustrate this point, using existing research to argue the hypothesis that cigarette smoking enhances endurance performance and should be incorporated into high-level training programs.