The Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) project is a newly launched project sponsored by the Earth System Modeling program within DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research. ACME is an unprecedented collaboration among eight national laboratories, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, four academic institutions, and one private-sector company to develop and apply the most complete, leading-edge climate and Earth system models to the most challenging and demanding climate- change research imperatives. It is the only major national modeling project designed to address U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission needs and efficiently utilize DOE Leadership Computing resources now and in the future. While the project’s capabilities will address the critical science questions articulated in this plan, its modeling system and related capabilities also can be flexibly applied by the DOE research community to address mission-specific climate change applications, such as those identified in the report, U.S. Energy Sector Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Extreme Weather.
The remainder of this section provides an overview of the ACME project strategy. Section 2 articulates our science priorities and the short- and long-range plans to address them. Section 3 provides more detail on the computational research challenges the project faces as we move Earth system modeling onto the new disruptive architectures. Our scientific metrics of model performance are described in section 4. Section 5 describes the initial construction of the software engineering and workflow infrastructure needed to support the ACME project. Finally, section 6 addresses the changes in the ACME management structure and function that resulted from the peer review.
1.1 The ACME Vision
The Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy Project is an ongoing, state-of-the-science Earth system modeling, simulation, and prediction project that optimizes the use of DOE laboratory resources to meet the science needs of the nation and the mission needs of DOE. In this context, “laboratory resources” include the people, programs, and facilities, current and future. They collectively represent a unique combination of scientific and engineering expertise as well as leadership computing and information technologies required to construct, maintain, and advance an Earth system modeling capability that is needed by the country and DOE. A major motivation for the ACME project is the coming paradigm shift in computing architectures and their related programming models as capability moves into the exascale era. DOE, through its science programs and early adoption of new computing architectures, traditionally leads many scientific communities, including climate and Earth system simulation, through these disruptive changes in computing.
1.2 The ACME Ten-Year Goal
Over the next 10 years, the ACME project will assert and maintain an international scientific leadership position in the development of Earth system and climate models at the leading edge of scientific knowledge and computational capabilities. With its collaborators, it will demonstrate its leadership by using these models to achieve the goal of designing, executing, and analyzing climate and Earth system simulations that address the most critical scientific questions for the nation and DOE.
Older adults tested in the morning not only perform better on demanding cognitive tasks but also activate the same brain networks responsible for paying attention and suppressing distraction as younger adults, according to a study in Psychology and Aging. The authors say this some of the strongest evidence yet that there are noticeable differences in brain function across the day for older adults.
"Time of day really does matter when testing older adults. This age group is more focused and better able to ignore distraction in the morning than in the afternoon," said lead author John Anderson, a PhD candidate with the Rotman Research Institute at Baycrest Health Sciences and University of Toronto, Department of Psychology.
"Their improved cognitive performance in the morning correlated with greater activation of the brain's attentional control regions – the rostral prefrontal and superior parietal cortex – similar to that of younger adults."
Asked how his team's findings may be useful to older adults in their daily activities, Anderson recommended that older adults try to schedule their most mentally-challenging tasks for the morning time. Those tasks could include doing taxes, taking a test (such as a driver's license renewal), seeing a doctor about a new condition, or cooking an unfamiliar recipe.
lots of caveats (single small study and potential biases)
University of Chicago biologists Amish Dave and Daniel Margoliash looked into the brains of zebra finches and discovered something similar. These birds are not born with the melodies of their songs hardwired into the brains; instead, they have to learn to sing their songs. When they're awake, the neurons in part of the finches' forebrain called the robutus archistriatalis fire following their singing of particular notes. Researchers can determine which note was sung based on the firing patterns of those neurons. By piecing together the electrical patterns in those neurons over time, Dave and Margoliash can reconstruct the entire song from start to finish.
Later, when the birds were asleep, Dave and Margoliash looked again at the electrical activity in that part of their brains. The firing of those neurons wasn't entirely random. Instead, the neurons fired in order, as if the bird was audibly singing the song, note for note. It might be said that the zebra finches were practising their songs while they slumbered.
Kim Goodsell was running along a mountain trail when her left ankle began turning inward, unbidden. A few weeks later she started having trouble lifting her feet properly near the end of her runs, and her toes would scuff the ground. Her back started to ache, and then her joints, too.
This was in 2002, and Kim, then 44 years old, was already an accomplished endurance athlete. She cycled, ran, climbed, and skied through the Rockies for hours every day; she was a veteran of Ironman triathlons. She’d always been the strong one in her family. When she was four, she would let her teenage uncles stand on her stomach as a party trick. In high school, she was an accomplished gymnast and an ardent cyclist. By college, she was running the equivalent of a half marathon on most days. It wasn’t that she was much of a competitor, exactly—passing someone in a race felt more deflating than energizing. Mostly Kim just wanted to be moving.
So when her limbs started glitching, she did what high-level athletes do, what she had always done: she pushed through. But in the summer of 2010, years of gradually worsening symptoms gave way to weeks of spectacular collapse. Kim was about to head to Lake Superior with her husband, CB. They planned to camp, kayak, and disappear from the world for as long as they could catch enough fish to eat. But in the days before their scheduled departure, she could not grip a pen or a fork, much less a paddle. Kim, a woman for whom extreme sports were everyday pursuits, could no longer cope with everyday pursuits. Instead of a lakeside tent, she found herself at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.
After four days of tests, Kim’s neurologist told her that she had Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, a genetic disorder that affects the peripheral neurons carrying signals between the spinal cord and the extremities. It’s rare and carries a varying suite of symptoms, but Kim’s are typical, starting at the feet and heading upward. The neurologist explained that as her neurons died, the surviving cells picked up the slack by sprouting new branches—a workaround that masked the underlying degeneration until the rate of cell death outpaced the rate of compensation. Hence Kim’s crash.
The neurologist told her to come back in a year so he could check how quickly the disease was progressing, but it would certainly progress. Charcot–Marie–Tooth has no cure.
The Goodsells drove home, and Kim, exhausted, slept for two days. When she woke up, she got to work. “My reaction to things that I have no control over is to find out as much as I can about them,” she says. She started by reviewing her clinic notes, and quickly she noticed something odd: there was hardly any mention of her heart.