Her son, a freshman at Gilbert High School in Gilbert, Arizona, told her that if students didn't put the abstinence-only education sticker in their textbooks, the student would have to speak with their grade-level administrator.
"They're teaching morality on an educational textbook," Young, a former high school teacher, said.
The sticker began: “The Gilbert Public School District supports the state of Arizona’s strong interest in promoting childbirth and adoption over elective abortion.”
This language was taken almost verbatim from an Arizona law that states that schools can only provide support (financial or instruction) to a sexual education program that presents giving birth and adoption as preferred to abortion
The sticker continued: “The District is also in support of promoting abstinence as the most effective way to eliminate the potential for unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. If you have questions concerning sexual intercourse, contraceptives, pregnancy, adoption, or abortion, we encourage you to speak with your parents.”
Jen Wathan1*, Anne M. Burrows2, Bridget M. Waller3, Karen McComb1*
1 Mammal Communication and Cognition Research, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom, 2 Centre for Comparative and Evolutionary Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom, 3 Department of Physical Therapy, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expres- sions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expres- sions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Dis- crete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle con- tractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high—and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.
The people of the Neolithic – the new Stone Age – were the first farmers in Britain, and they arrived on Orkney about 6,000 years ago. They cultivated the land, built farmsteads and rapidly established a vibrant culture, erecting giant stone circles, chambered communal tombs – and a giant complex of buildings at the Ness of Brodgar. The religious beliefs that underpinned these vast works is unknown, however, as is the purpose of the Brodgar temples.
"This wasn't a settlement or a place for the living," says archaeologist Professor Colin Richards of Manchester University, who excavated the nearby Barnhouse settlement in the 1980s. "This was a ceremonial centre, and a vast one at that. But the religious beliefs of its builders remain a mystery."
What is clear is that the cultural energy of the few thousand farming folk of Orkney dwarfed those of other civilisations at that time. In size and sophistication, the Ness of Brodgar is comparable with Stonehenge or the wonders of ancient Egypt. Yet the temple complex predates them all. The fact that this great stately edifice was constructed on Orkney, an island that has become a byword for remoteness, makes the site's discovery all the more remarkable. For many archaeologists, its discovery has revolutionised our understanding of ancient Britain.
"We need to turn the map of Britain upside down when we consider the Neolithic and shrug off our south-centric attitudes," says Card, now Brodgar's director of excavations. "London may be the cultural hub of Britain today, but 5,000 years ago, Orkney was the centre for innovation for the British isles. Ideas spread from this place. The first grooved pottery, which is so distinctive of the era, was made here, for example, and the first henges – stone rings with ditches round them – were erected on Orkney. Then the ideas spread to the rest of the Neolithic Britain. This was the font for new thinking at the time."
Most of the Earth's heat is from solar radiation, but there is a flow of about 47 terawatts from inside to space. Some of that is leftover from the formation and some from radioactive decay. Getting at the question involves measuring a decay product of likely nuclear reactions that can make it through a lot of rock. Anti-neutrinos fill the bill, but they easily travel through anything and are difficult to detect, let alone isolate as produced within the Earth.
The black-footed ferret, a critically endangered species native to North America, is the latest animal to benefit. The critters used to be quite numerous, but their population plummeted due to habitat destruction and food scarcity. In a study published Thursday in the journal Animal Conservation, researchers working as part of a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery program report successfully using sperm frozen as much as 20 years before to increase the genetic diversity of the small population.
It's not an easy process: Even inseminating a female black-footed ferret with fresh samples is an uphill battle. Because the species only ovulates when the physical act of mating triggers the process, scientists had to develop a hormonal treatment that would jumpstart the release of an egg. Once that was perfected (and resulted in over 100 live births, using recently harvested sperm) they moved on to using samples frozen 10 and 20 years prior.