Now that the Census Bureau has been made a permanent branch of the government, it attains the dignity and importance which its merits deserve. A popular impression prevailing among a large number of people is that the main part of the work of the Census is the taking of it, that is to say, the gathering of the data. That nothing could be more erroneous is evidenced by the fact that by legislative enactment a single month only was allowed for the taking of the Twelfth Census, while two years were given within which to tabulate the data. The data collected can have no meaning or value to the legislator and the student of sociology and political economy until classified into categories which form a basis for comparisons and conclusions. This is the real work of the Census Bureau, and it is of enormous proportions. The last decade of the nineteenth century added to the wealth of our country, according to Mulhall, twenty-five billion dollars, which is estimated to be more than the nation was able to save from the discovery by Columbus to the breaking out of the civil war. It also added immensely to the growth of our country in productive resources, in population and in problems sociological and economic. Upon undertaking their work therefore the officials of the Twelfth Census found confronting them such a demand for further data and more light affecting these interests, that new and extraordinary instrumentalities were invoked to shorten the labor, extend the tabulations, and increase the accuracy, speed, and effectiveness of the clerical force in separating, segregating, and classifying into categories the vast amount of data. The machine has been adapted to this work and made to take the place of the erring eye, the faulty memory, or the careless hand to such an extent that to-day the Census Office presents the appearance and busy hum of a vast machine shop rather than that of a great counting-house.