Why did the steak miss the mark? Well, you have to brown the meat's surface over a hot flame to develop a tasty, aromatic crust. This takes heat, lots of heat, applied quickly so the entire steak doesn't turn to charcoal. But, in order to simultaneously cook through to the raw center, that same energy must diffuse from the fire, past the sizzling meat's surface, into the core.
Muscle, as luck would have it, is a rather poor thermal conductor (as well as a great absorber) of heat. There is a huge temperature gradient between surface and center when grilling a steak right out of the fridge. A gradient that stubbornly resists leveling out during cooking. Simply trying to force more heat in from the grill merely piles up energy near the surface. The outer 1/4" can easily reach 170F (which is both flavorless and tough), while meat near the bone may be 10F cooler than the center, because bone slightly impedes heat flow.
All a consequence of meat's astonishingly poor thermal properties.
There must be a better way. Actually, there are two: