It may be that a sixth basic taste has joined sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami - fat. The new taste is called oleogustus, although one suspects it may just be called fat as umami is often called savory.
The paper in the journal Chemical Senses
Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat
Cordelia A. Running1, Bruce A. Craig2 and Richard D. Mattes3
1 Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA,
2 Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA, and
3 Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for “fat taste”) differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). Although some overlap was observed between these NEFA and umami taste, this overlap is likely due to unfamiliarity with umami sensations rather than true similarity. Shorter chain fatty acids stimulate a sensation similar to sour, but as chain length increases this sensation changes. Fat taste oral signaling, and the different signals caused by different alkyl chain lengths, may hold implications for food product development, clinical practice, and public health policy.
a tip of the hat to Sukie