Denmark has more initiatives against food waste in Europe than any other state – from awareness campaigns and partnerships to government subsidies for food waste projects. This is largely thanks to Stop Spild Af Mad - Stop Wasting Food – a lobby group set up by graphic designer Selina Juul.
comparing worldwide cloud cover from thirty years ago to today... serious evidence of the changes underway
“cloud amount and albedo [i.e., reflectivity] increased over the northwest Indian Ocean, the northwest and southwest tropical Pacific Ocean, and north of the Equator in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Cloud amount and albedo decreased over mid-latitude oceans in both hemispheres (especially over the North Atlantic), over the southeast Indian Ocean, and in a northwest-to-southeast line stretching across the central tropical South Pacific.”
Note that it is not like some parts of the world don’t have any clouds any more. Still, the changes are significant in the context of how radiation originating from the sun enters, and ultimately departs from, the Earth’s system.
Not just one but both of these changes to clouds are “positive feedbacks” to climate change — tending to make warming worse.
Moving cloud tracks toward the poles enhances warming because at higher latitudes, less solar radiation strikes the Earth — so white clouds are reflecting less of it away from the planet than they would if they were closer to the tropics and the Equator, Norris said. Meanwhile, he continued, higher cloud tops in effect thicken the total column of cloud, and that means more trapping of infrared or heat radiation that would otherwise exit to space.
“We now have a thicker blanket, which is also a warming effect,” Norris said.
Energy requirements for data centers have leveled off. Traditional inefficiencies have been attacked and fewer larger servers are being more efficiently utilized. A report from a highly respected team
United States Data Center Energy Usage Report
Arman Shehabi, Sarah Smith, Dale Sartor, Richard Brown, Magnus Herrlin
Environmental and Energy Impact Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Steyer-Taylor Center for Energy Policy and Finance, Stanford University
McCormick School of Engineering, Northwestern University
Nathaniel Horner, Inês Azevedo
Climate and Energy Decision Making Center, Carnegie Mellon University
Federal Energy Management Program, U.S. Department of Energy
The tl;dr from the report:
This report estimates historical data center electricity consumption back to 2000, relying on previous studies and historical shipment data, and forecasts consumption out to 2020 based on new trends and the most recent data available. Figure ES-1 provides an estimate of total U.S. data center electricity use (servers, storage, network equipment, and infrastructure) from 2000-2020. In 2014, data centers in the U.S. consumed an estimated 70 billion kWh, representing about 1.8% of total U.S. electricity consumption. Current study results show data center electricity consumption increased by about 4% from 2010-2014, a large shift from the 24% percent increase estimated from 2005-2010 and the nearly 90% increase estimated from 2000-2005. Energy use is expected to continue slightly increasing in the near future, increasing 4% from 2014-2020, the same rate as the past five years. Based on current trend estimates, U.S. data centers are projected to consume approximately 73 billion kWh in 2020.
Many factors contribute to the overall energy trends found in this report, though the most conspicuous change may be the reduced growth in the number of servers operating in data centers. While shipments of new servers into data centers continue to grow every year, the growth rate has diminished over the past 15 years. From 2000-2005, server shipments increased by 15% each year resulting in a near doubling of servers operating in data centers. From 2005-2010, the annual shipment increase fell to 5%, partially driven by a conspicuous drop in 2009 shipments (most likely from the economic recession), as well as from the emergence of server virtualization across that 5-year period. The annual growth in server shipments further dropped after 2010 to 3% and that growth rate is now expected to continue through 2020. This 3% annual growth rate coincides with the rise in very large “hyperscale” data centers and an increased popularity of moving previously localized data center activity to colocation or cloud facilities. In fact, nearly all server shipment growth since 2010 occurred in servers destined for large hyperscale data centers, where servers are often configured for maximum productivity and operated at high utilization rates, resulting in fewer servers needed in the hyperscale data centers than would be required to provide the same services in traditional, smaller, data centers.
The global warming goal of 1.5° to 2.0°C over the pre-industrial era is laudable and perhaps the damage could be handled. Unfortunately, given the current level of commitment , getting there is fantasy.
Despite concerted efforts, scientists have been unable to convince blue tangs to breed in captivity. That means that every blue tang, every Dory, sold has to be captured from the wild. And a surprisingly large number of those fish are captured with cyanide, new research shows.
Most of the 11 million fish sold in the U.S. aquarium trade come from coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. In some places, like Hawaii and Australia, there are decent rules and enough enforcement of them that fish can be collected without too much harm to ecosystems. But in others, there aren’t enough laws or enforcers to prevent disturbing, destructive practices, such as fishing with explosives or cyanide.
Commentary on prices in current systems from Berkeley's Haas Energy Institute. For reference burning a gallon of gas releases about 20 pounds of carbon dioxide. So divide these numbers by 50 to get a rough idea of how much this would tack onto a gallon of gas.
Hansen has since became an activist. He's noted for what are sometimes considered to be extreme forecasts, but so far he has proven to be on-track or even conservative. Science tends to publicly state the more conservative position.