1Australian Council for Educational Research, Camberwell, Australia
2University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
Eva Van de gaer, Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER), Private Bag 55, 19 Prospect Hill Rd, Camberwell, VIC, Australia 3124 Email:Vandegaer@acer.edu.au
Academic self-concept and achievement are positively related among students from the same school and country. Yet negative associations between these variables may be found at the level of schools and countries. In the present article, we propose how this apparent paradox can be explained in terms of reference group effects, in which high standards, norms, or benchmarks act to decrease academic self-concept, whereas low ones have the contrary effect. Multilevel regression analyses of the PISA 2006 data consisting of 353,403 students, 13,886 schools from 53 countries revealed an interesting pattern of relationships. Within schools, students’ science achievement and science self-concept were positively related although the size of this relationship varied considerably between countries, whereas between schools and between countries, this association was negative. Consistent with our hypothesis, the size of the between-school relationship was larger in countries with a higher percentage of selective schools. At the country level, the negative relationship between country mean achievement and self-concept was explained by country differences in educational benchmarks, standards, and norms next to country differences in response styles. In this article, we also discuss the implications for the validity of cross-cultural comparisons of self-concept.
Snow filled her mouth. She caromed off things she never saw, tumbling through a cluttered canyon like a steel marble falling through pins in a pachinko machine.
At first she thought she would be embarrassed that she had deployed her air bag, that the other expert skiers she was with, more than a dozen of them, would have a good laugh at her panicked overreaction. Seconds later, tumbling uncontrollably inside a ribbon of speeding snow, she was sure this was how she was going to die.
Moving, roiling snow turns into something closer to liquid, thick like lava. But when it stops, it instantly freezes solid. The laws of physics and chemistry transform a meadow of fine powder into a wreckage of icy chunks. Saugstad’s pinwheeling body would freeze into whatever position it was in the moment the snow stopped.
After about a minute, the creek bed vomited the debris into a gently sloped meadow. Saugstad felt the snow slow and tried to keep her hands in front of her. She knew from avalanche safety courses that outstretched hands might puncture the ice surface and alert rescuers. She knew that if victims ended up buried under the snow, cupped hands in front of the face could provide a small pocket of air for the mouth and nose. Without it, the first breaths could create a suffocating ice mask.
The avalanche spread and stopped, locking everything it carried into an icy cocoon. It was now a jagged, virtually impenetrable pile of ice, longer than a football field and nearly as wide. As if newly plowed, it rose in rugged contrast to the surrounding fields of undisturbed snow, 20 feet tall in spots.
In 1942 Lord Mountbatten convinced Winston Churchill of the merits of pykrete - a mixture of ice and wood pulp created by the eccentric English boffin Geoffrey Pyke. The notion was to build an enormous aircraft carrier at least 2,000 feet long and 300 feet wide that could provide an airbase in the North Atlantic The problem was that it required an enormous amount of wood and, of course, it would eventually melt.
£5000 was provided for a small test which took place on Patricia Lake in Jasper in the Canadian Rockies. I first encountered it listening to an old timer in a tea house near the lake when I was hiking there years ago...
When your back is against the wall you are willing to try almost anything..
The name is from a book in the old testament and something that puzzles me. I was told that it is from a verse in the book - something this source agrees with.
“Behold ye among the heathen, and regard and wonder marvellously: for I will work a work in your days, which ye will not believe, though it be told to you.” Hab. 1:5
But I like something a biblical scholar told me when I asked him for a bit of background ... Habbakkuk was the only prophet who questions god's wisdom when he saw a great unjustice and asked why god wasn't doing anything about it. Somehow I could imagine that squaring with the English sense of humor a bit better.
While I was working out this morning I caught a WNYC Soundcheck segment on Mr Magoo's Christmas Carol. It turns out this was the pioneering holiday animated show on television - before the Grinch, Charlie Brown and even Rudolph.
It is now 50 years old and will be shown Saturday night on NBC
(the segment begins at the 25:00 mark and runs a bit over 10 minutes)
Manu online special interest groups tend to have a lot of infighting and other normal social problems with moderators lasting a couple of years before burnout. A few are run by people who have serious people skills and a tiny percentage have sustained and thrived for many years.