A version for elves is offered, but it just uses a faux-elvish font (Tengwar or something like it) rather than a translation to Quenya or one of its variants. (which would have been very difficult requiring an extention of the language).
The Climate of Middle Earth
Radagast the Brown1,2
1Rhosgobel, nr. Carrock, Mirkwood, Middle Earth.
2The Cabot Institute, University of Bristol, UK.
Correspondence to: email@example.com
Abstract. In this paper, I present and discuss results from a climate model simulation of the ‘Middle Earth’ of elves, dwarves, and hobbits (and not forgetting wizards such as myself). These are put into context by also presenting simulations of the climate of the ‘Modern Earth’ of humans, and of the ‘Dinosaur Earth’, when dinosaurs ruled the Earth 65 million years ago.
Several aspects of the Middle Earth simulation are discussed, including the importance of prevailing wind drection for elvish sailing boats, the effect of heat and drought on the vegetation of Mordor, and the rainshadow effects of the Misty Mountains. I also identify those places in the Modern Earth which have the most similar climate to the regions of The Shire and Mordor.
The importance of assessing ‘climate sensitivity’ (the re- sponse of the Earth to a doubling of atmospheric carbon diox- ide concentrations) is discussed, including the utility of mod- elling and reconstructing past climate change over timescales of millions of years. I also discuss the role of the Intergov- ernmental/Interkingdom Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in assessing climate change, and the responsibilities placed on policymakers.
About four years ago MIT and some others designed an integrated wheel/motor/battery assembly to turn a bike into a human-electric hybrid. It was a refined version of the BionX ebike kit. More recently it was announced it would become available for about half the price of the BionX .. about $700 for the kit. You add it to your current bike and all of a sudden you have an ebike - perhaps a very appealing one. I'd be reluctant without testing one as ebikes have their own characteristics, but at this price - if it is basically ok and can last - it would be something of a steal.
Greg points to a piece on an issue facing airport security
Duke University researchers analyzed data from searches of 20 million virtual suitcases in the game Airport Scanner created by Kedlin Co. and found that users failed in most cases to identify objects that occurred only rarely.
"We're seeing that people are really bad at finding items that are not likely to appear," said Stephen Mitroff, Ph.D., associate professor of psychology and neuroscience and member of the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences.
In the game, players scan images that look like X-rays of carry-on luggage, trying to find hundreds of possible items, including guns and dynamite sticks, as well as over-sized bottles and scissors.
For this study – which appears online in Psychological Science – researchers evaluated gameplay data from December 2012 to March 2013 to determine how often the players found 78 different illegal items in light of how often the items appeared. Investigators used target frequencies (the appearance rate of a specific illegal object) to understand a player's success at identifying targets when they appear.
Thirty items were "ultra-rare," appearing in the game less than 0.15 percent of the time – a rate that is comparable to the presence of cancerous markers in real-life radiological screenings, according to Mitroff. Yet the study results revealed players correctly identified those 30 targets only 27 percent of the time. Targets that appeared with more than 1 percent frequency were pinpointed 92 percent of the time.