An evolving tool at the center of science. A brief history
From Animaculum to single-molecules: 300 years of the light microscope
Adam J. M. Wollman, Richard Nudd, Erik G. Hedlund, Mark C. Leake
Biological Physical Sciences Institute (BPSI), Departments of Physics and Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK.
Although not laying claim to being the inventor of the light microscope, Antonj van Leeuwenhoek, (1632 –1723) was arguably the first person to bring this new technological wonder of the age properly to the attention of natural scientists interested in the study of living things (people we might now term ‘biologists’). He was a Dutch draper with no formal scientific training. From using magnifying glasses to observe threads in cloth, he went on to develop over 500 simple single lens microscopes1 with which he used to observe many different biological samples. He communicated his finding to the Royal Society in a series of letters2 including the one republished in this edition of Open Biology. Our review here begins with the work of van Leeuwenhoek before summarising the key developments over the last ca. 300 years which has seen the light microscope evolve from a simple single lens device of van Leeuwenhoek’s day into an instrument capable of observing the dynamics of single biological molecules inside living cells, and to tracking every cell nucleus in the development of whole embryos and plants.