The Neolithic Revolution involved the advent of agriculture, which finally allowed people to settle down in ever-larger groups and focus on things other than procuring calories—things like developing written language and forming social cliques. It was one of the most profound events in the collective history of humanity.
But it wasn't just social change. It was a change in the evolutionary environment that shaped the human genome. The genetic variation found in different populations on the globe today provides hints to the ways we all adapted. But analyzing ancient DNA could allow us to identify traits as they adapted in real time.
Alas, ancient human DNA has been pretty sparse. Now, an international team of geneticists, archaeologists, and anthropologists has assembled a database of genomes from 230 West Eurasians who lived between 6500 and 300 BCE and found evidence of selection at genetic loci involved in diet, pigmentation, immunity, and height.
Blind and reference-free fluorescence lifetime estimation via consumer time-of-flight sensors
AYUSH BHANDARI,1, CHRISTOPHER BARSI,2 AND RAMESH RASKAR1
1Media Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA 2Commonwealth School, 151 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02116, USA
Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) is a popular method for extracting useful information that is otherwise unavail- able from a conventional intensity image. Usually, however, it requires expensive equipment, is often limited to either distinctly frequency- or time-domain modalities, and demands calibration measurements and precise knowledge of the illumination signal. Here, we present a generalized time-based, cost-effective method for estimating lifetimes by repur- posing a consumer-grade time-of-flight sensor. By developing mathematical theory that unifies time- and frequency- domain approaches, we can interpret a time-based signal as a combination of multiple frequency measurements. We show that we can estimate lifetimes without knowledge of the illumination signal and without any calibration. We experimentally demonstrate this blind, reference-free method using a quantum dot solution and discuss the method’s implementation in FLI applications.
OK - here is the 21st year of the card I first posted in 1994 ...
The drawing came together in about a minute. The music was done in midi editing with a keyboard looking at a score and took much longer. I put it on a server running on red net (a link outside our corporate firewall) under my desk and sent the link to readers of The Crandall Surf Report - an early pre-blog I wrote in the Mosaic era.
I didn't think much of it until the second year when people started bothering me to re-post it. Dozens of people. One thing led after another and it has finally made to to legal age.
The current server, and I think this is the fifth, no longer supports midi and I was forced to convert it to mp3. No autoplay, so click on the player for the music. So much for authenticity.
anyway ... whatever your holiday, have a good one!
• Don't skip meals. "Eat breakfast and lunch so you avoid overeating during the traditional Thanksgiving dinner," says Sasso. "If you save your appetite for the big meal, you will likely eat more and experience the 'food coma' many complain about."
• Mind what you eat. "Focus on eating your favorite once-a-year holiday foods and pass on other everyday dishes," says Sasso. "Don't eat your weight in appetizers if you really are looking forward to the main meal."
• Quality not quantity. "Three slices of dessert will not taste as good or be as appreciated as three small sampling portions," she says. "Or, skip the crust when eating pie or the big dollop of ice cream or whipped topping to save calories."
• Load up on vegetables and fruits. "Produce is loaded with vitamins and minerals, and you will benefit from the fiber," says Sasso. "Eating vegetables doused in cream sauce and butter is better than not eating any at all."
Tim Marvin directs endrobocalls.org, a Consumers Union campaign that started in February and has signed up more than a half-million supporters.
"We're expecting another uptick in robocalls to cellphones," Marvin says.
For one thing, political campaigns are allowed to robocall. Secondly, he says, the Budget Act signed into law this month, for example, loosens the law to allow debt collectors to use robocalls to collect on federally backed debt, like student loans.
"We really think that phone companies should be stopping this before they get to our phones. We think that they have the ability and the technology to stop these, and we're frankly not exactly sure why they won't act to give something customers so clearly want," Marvin says.